Governance and Polity [IAS (Admin.) IAS Mains GS Paper 2 (Governance, Polity, Social Justice, & IR)]: Questions 53 - 56 of 67

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Question 53

Governance and Polity
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Essay▾

The 255th Law Commission Report on Electoral Reforms observed that opacity in political funding results in “lobbying and capture” of the government by big donors. Do you think electoral bonds would help address flow of black money into political parties? What are the other alternatives available? Critically comment. (250 Words)

Explanation

Introduction:

  • According to the NGO, Association of Democratic Reforms, 69 % of the income of political parties is from unknown sources. But even the 31 % from known sources pertains only to the income that the parties declare to the Income Tax (IT) department.
  • The 255th Law Commission Report on Electoral Reforms observed that opacity in political fun…

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Question 54

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Essay▾

Through its oversight function, Parliament holds the government accountable and ensures that policies are efficient and in keeping with the needs of citizens. What mechanisms are available to the Parliament to conduct oversight of the executive? Also, in the light of criticisms made against parliament՚s this role, discuss major recommendations to strengthen this function of Parliament. (250 Words)

Explanation

Background:

Through its oversight function, Parliament holds the government accountable and ensures that policies are efficient and in keeping with the needs of citizens. In addition, parliamentary oversight is essential to prevent arbitrary and unconstitutional action by the government.

Mechanisms for Parliamentary Oversight over Executive:

There are…

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Question 55

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Essay▾

The amendments to the Maternity Benefit Act are noble, but impractical to implement. Comment. (150 Words)

Explanation

Introduction:

The government, made an amendment to the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 recently. This move places India in the league of wealthy Western countries that have some of the most generous benefits for new mothers.

These noble amendments are as follows:

  • Increased Paid Maternity Leave: The Maternity Benefit Amendment Act has increased the duratio…

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Question 56

Governance and Polity
Functioning
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Essay▾

The attempt by the executive to subvert the independent function of the legislature and its secretariat has serious implications for Indian polity. Discuss critically these implications and comment if there should be an alternative manner to convene parliament. (250 Words)

Explanation

Parliament – Daily Assessment of the Government:

  • Defending the parliamentary system versus the presidential system, B. R. Ambedkar argued that all such systems attempted a balance between stability and responsibility. Both systems provide a periodic assessment by the electorate through elections.
  • However, the parliamentary system provides a higher le…

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