GRE (Graduate Record Examinations) Psychology Thinking-Problem Solving Study Material (Page 3 of 5)

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Steps in Problem Solving


According to Bransford and Stein there are five steps coded as ‘IDEAL’

I = Identifying the problem

D = Defining and representing the problem

E = Exploring possible strategies

A = Acting on strategies

L = Looking back & evaluating effects of activities

Problem solving is an individual phenomena and involves exercise of cognitive abilities of higher order, continuous persistent & struggling on conscious as well as unconscious levels.

Major steps are:

  • Problem awareness
  • Problem understanding
  • Collection of rel…

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Factors Influencing Problem Solving: Heuristics and Biasness in Decision Making


The following factors affect problem solving

  • Sets: These are preparatory adjustments to perform a task.
  • Hints: If provided at the beginning hints make it easier to solve problem.
  • Priming of Solutions: Familiarity with the correct solution enhances chances of problem solving

Heuristics and Biasness in Decision Making

Biasness in decision-making is caused by

  • Representativeness: Whether the current situation is representative of…

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