GRE (Graduate Record Examinations) Psychology Personality-Personality and Behavior Study Material (Page 2 of 15)

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Seligman՚s Explanatory Styles: Aspects of Explanatory Styles


During 1970s Martin Seligman proposed a concept of “learned helplessness” . Learned helplessness is behavior occurring when the subject endures repeatedly painful or otherwise aversive stimuli which it is unable to escape from or avoid. Later the subject learns to “escape” or “avoid” such situations. He developed two types of explanatory styles on the basis of this learned helplessness viz. , optimistic and pessimistic explanatory style.

  • Pessimistic Explanatory Style: People who generally tend t…

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Kohlberg՚s Theory of Moral Development: Stages of Moral Development


Lawerence Kohlberg was greatly influenced by the theories of Jean Piaget but rejected the age classification used by Piaget. According to Piaget, morality develops through constructive stages. However, according to Kohlberg, theory of moral development is based on moral reasoning, which is the basis for ethical behavior. Kohlberg found six identifiable stages of moral development and explained that the development of morality is mainly based on justice and it develops throughout the life time.

Stages of Moral Development

He explained about six stages of moral development which are grouped in to three levels viz. , Pre-conventional, conventional and…

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