GRE (Graduate Record Examinations) Psychology Measurement and Methodology-Statistical Procedures Study Material (Page 19 of 25)

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Measuring Association Among Attributes: ANOVA or F-Test


ANOVA or F-Test

ANOVA also called an F-test, is closely related to the t-test. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine whether there are any statistically significant differences between the means of three or more independent (unrelated) groups.


The null hypothesis is that all population means are equal and the alternative hypothesis is that at least one mean is different.

Setup for ANOVA


  • Dependent variable is normally distributed.
  • Two groups have nearly eq…

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Measuring Association Among Attributes: Chi-Square



The methods and statistics we have seen so far work on numerical data. However, geographic data is of two types, numerical and categorical. Numerical data is in form of numbers, categorical data is in the form of categories. Altitude is numerical variable while soil type is categorical.

Chi-squared test is applied on two categorical variables from a single population. It is used to determine whether there is a significant association between the two variables.

For example, in a soil survey, soil might be classified by color (red or black) and the coarseness (very coarse or fine) . We could use a chi-square test for independence to…

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