GRE (Graduate Record Examinations) Psychology Measurement and Methodology-Research Designs Study Material (Page 10 of 16)

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Types of Research: Action Research


Action Research

Action research is a research initiated to solve an immediate problem. It is a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by teams or community of professionals to improve the way issue is addressed and problems are solved. There are two types of action research: participatory action research and practical action research. The key idea is that action research is carried out by the “actors” or the main people concerned with the outcome.

Methods of Action Research

Some of the methods include:

  • Observing individuals or groups
  • Using audio and video tape recording
  • Using structured or semi-structured interviews
  • Taking field notes
  • Using or taking photogra

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Types of Research: Ex-Post Facto or Causal-Comparative Research and Correlational Research


Ex-Post Facto or Causal-Comparative Research

Ex post facto design is a quasi-experimental study examining how an independent variable, present prior to the study, affects a dependent variable. It is also called Causal-Comparative research.

  • Such research seeks to investigate cause and effect relationships between two or more

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