GRE (Graduate Record Examinations) Psychology Learning-Learning Theories, Applications and Issues Study Material (Page 9 of 15)

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Tolman՚s Purposive Behavior: Expectancy Theory and Criticisms of Tolman՚s Views

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Expectancy Theory

In animal experiments, Tolman trained subjects to learn a maze with a preferred food as a reward. They observed that if they switched to a less preferred reward, the rats displayed disgust. Tolman attributed this to acquisition of expectancies in response to the signs or stimuli of a particular situation. The problem was he never defined expectancy even though it was a powerful element in his system.

Criticisms of Tolman՚S Views

  • Reinforcement is not necessary for learning. Reinforcement only facilitates learning and learning involves formation of cognition rather than S-R response.
  • It does not explain how the signs significance relations are strengthene…

… (116 more words) …

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Tolman՚s Purposive Behavior: Tolman՚s Six Types of Learning and Tolman՚s Three Laws

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Tolman՚S Six Types of Learning

Tolman Identified Six Types of Learning

  • Learning by Cathexes: Connecting or associating basic drives with desired goals with the end-result of developing preference for food, drink, sex-objects, etc.
  • Equivalence Beliefs: Sub-goals leading to major ones acquire similar attractiveness as the end goals.
  • Field Expectancies: Acquisitions of sets of gestalts (internal maps) enable the individual to route himself based on these internal maps.
  • Field Cognition Modes: Learning is influenced by the ways that perceptions, memories, and inferences function.
  • Drive Discrimination: …

… (135 more words) …

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