GRE (Graduate Record Examinations) Psychology Behavioral Neuroscience-Neuroscience Theories, Applications and Issues Study Material (Page 1 of 1)

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Eye Physiology: Anatomy, Visual Systems of Animals




Light waves enter the eye in the following order:

  • Cornea: transparent covering in front of the eye.
  • Aqueous humor: viscous substance between the cornea and the lens.
  • Pupil: opening within the colored part of the eye, iris
    • The pupil opens and closes to regulate the amount of entering light
  • Lens: focus the light waves on the retina at the back of the eyeball
    • The lens is held in place by the suspensory ligament.
  • Ciliary muscles: change the shape of the lens in order to focus the image on the retina
    • These lens changes are called accommodation.
  • Vitreous humor: transparent substance between the lens and the retina
  • Retina: light-sensitive inner lining of the eyeball.
    • Contains two kinds of photoreceptors: Rods (sensitive…

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Eye Physiology: Functions of Eye, Perception of Color, Properties of Light, Theories of Color Vision, Color Deficiencies


Functions of Eye

Dark and Light Adaptation

Dark Adaptation

  • After exposure to bright light when a person goes into a dark room, the time, which it takes to see properly in dark, is called dark adaptation. In bright light cones are active, while in dark rods become active.
  • The cones can adapt to darkness but still require a moderate amount of illumination. Rods can adapt to the dark with decreasing illumination. The process of dark adaptation involves changes …

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