GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) Psychology Theories of Learning-Operant Conditioning Study Material (Page 4 of 7)

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Punishment: Difference between Punishment and Negative Enforcement

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Punishment can act as a negative reinforcement as punishment decreases the probability that a particular preceding event will occur again. When subjects are punished, they experience the unpleasant or aversive stimulus. For example, a student who does not study may be punished by being failed in the exam. Failing the student was i…

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Extinction

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Extinction involves withholding the reinforcement so that when a response is made no reinforcement follows. This removes or weakens the response learnt in operant conditioning. It occurs in classical conditioning, when the CS no longer produces a CR. One way to measure, the strength of the learning that has occurred is to see how many unreinforced trials must occur before extinction takes place. Sometimes, in both classical and operant conditioning, spontaneous recovery occurs; that is, the response in question begins again even though there has been no reinforcement (e. g. , a rat presses the bar even though the action no longer produces a food pellet) . Major theories dealing with extinction are com…

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