GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) Psychology Theories of Learning-Operant Conditioning Study Material (Page 3 of 7)

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Reinforcement: Primary and Secondary Reinforcement

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Primary and Secondary Reinforcement

Reinforcement is the process of following an event with a second event meant to make the recurrence of the first event more likely. The second event itself is called the reinforcer.

Positive Reinforcement

The presentation of a rewarding or pleasant stimulus or positive reinforcer increases the probability that a particular response will occur.

While a rat may learn to press a bar in an operant box if the action triggers a mechanism that delivers food…

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Reinforcement: Primary and Secondary and Schedule of Reinforcement

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Primary and Secondary Reinforcers

In addition to being classified as positive or negative, reinforcers can be primary or secondary.

Primary Reinforcer

A primary reinforcer is a substance (such as palatable food) or situation (such as electric shock) that is universally rewarding or punishing.

Secondary Reinforcer

A secondary reinforcer is a formerly neutral stimulus that has acquired reward or punishment value. For example, grades given in examinations

Schedule of Reinforcement

Reinforcem…

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