GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) Psychology Theories of Learning-Classical Conditioning Study Material (Page 3 of 3)

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Description of Classical Conditioning: Types of Conditioning, Why Classical Conditioning Works? , Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning


Types of Conditioning

Forward conditioning

  • Delayed conditioning: CS remains for the first part or for some time of the UCS. CS starts first then UCS starts.
  • Trace conditioning: CS starts and ends. UCS starts after the end of CS.
    • Simultaneous conditioning: CS & UCS comes and go at the same time.
    • Backward conditioning: Exact opposite of trace conditioning.
      • UCS comes first and ends
      • CS starts at the end of UCS
  • Delayed condition generally produces most rapid rate of learning.
  • Simultaneous and backward conditioning is least effective.

Why Classical Conditioning Works?

  • Contiguity: CS & UCS are contagious in time.
  • Contingency: CS i…

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Classical Conditioning: Little Albert Experiment

  • John Watson also credited as the founder of behaviorism, believed that behavior can be explained in terms of learning.
  • He conducted the notorious experiment known as the “little Albert experiment.”
  • He believed that children՚s fears can be learned by classical conditioning.
  • Hypothesis: Fear to specific objects or situations can be learned in children.
  • He proved his hypothesis by conducting an experiment with a little boy named Albert.

Case Study

Albert wasn՚t initially afraid of furry animals. So, Watson thorough his experiment wanted to show how conditioning could lead to fear of rats in Albert.

Fear of Rats in Albert
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