GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) Psychology Research Methods and Statistics-Statistics in Psychology Study Material (Page 9 of 9)

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Measuring Association Among Attributes: Covariance and Correlation



Covariance is a measure of how much two random variables change together. High covariance implies that if one variable increases, other should also increase.


Correlation is a statistical technique that can show whether and how strongly pairs of variables are related. E. g. , variety of flora and fauna is related; more species of plants and animals can co-exist together. Correlation can tell, just how much of the variation in number of animal species is related to variation in plant species.

Correlation estimates relation, it does not tell what the relation is. Estimation or establishing relationship is the job of regression.

Formula for the correlation is: Where, is number of Pair of scores, is sum o

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Measuring Association Among Attributes: T-Tests



It is one of the statistic used for hypothesis testing. T-test determines whether there is significant difference between two group means. It describes if two groups actually come from same population and appear different only because of chance errors. It is less likely that the difference is due to sampling errors or chance if:

  • Sample size is large
  • There is larger difference between two means
  • There is smaller variance among the participants

All t-tests inv

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