GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) Psychology Biological and Evolutionary Basis of Behaviour-Neurons Study Material (Page 3 of 4)

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Neurotransmitters: Neurotransmission



Neural transmission occurs when a neuron is activated, or fired (sends out an electrical impulse) .


Activation or firing of the neuron takes place when the neuron is stimulated by pressure, heat, light, or chemical information from other cells. The fluid inside a neuron is separated from that outside by a polarized cell membrane that contains electrically charged particles known as ions. When a neuron is sufficiently stimulated to reach the neural threshold (a level of stimulation below, which the cell does not fire) , depolarization or a change in cell potential occurs.


The term potential refers the diffe…

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Transmission of a Nerve Impulse: Resting and Action Potential


Membrane potentials are described by various ionic concentration configurations outside and inside the membrane of a cell. These potentials are resting membrane potential, action potential, post-synaptic potentials. Beginning with the transduction process at the receptor, physical energy results in a pattern of nerve impulses in the central nervous system.

Physical energy is changed into a code made up of o pattern of nerve firings. The firing patterns that correspond to events in the environment are known as afferent codes.

Nerve Impulse 3 Membrane Potential Na-K Pump

Resting Potential

It is the potential maintained by the inactive neuron. When unstimulated, a neuron is like a small battery and has a measurable negat…

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