GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) English Literary Criticism and Theory Study Material (Page 15 of 33)

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Culture and Class Struggle in Literature: Antonio Gramsci, Raymond Williams


Antonio Gramsci

  • In Marxist theory, society is divided into two categories: the Base and Superstructure. Briefly, the Base constitutes the means of production and relations of production and Superstructure comprises of various institutions such as media, religion, judiciary, art, family, philosophy and most importantly culture in a general sense.
  • Theorists Antonio Gramsci and Raymond Williams who broadly fall under Marxist criticism but have developed their own space in the history of literary theory and criticism.
  • Antonio Gramsci, General Secretary of the Italian Communist Party was arrested in 1926 by the then Fascist Italian state and subsequently sentenced to twenty years imprisonment.
  • Ho…

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Texts and History: Georg Lukacs, Terry Eagleton



  • Terry Eagleton in his book, After Theory notes the demise of literary criticism in literary studies since mid-20th century; its place was taken over by cultural criticism and theory.
  • literature as a mirror of society and adds, if literature is indeed a mirror, it stands at an angle to reality and thus is at best a broken mirror, incorrectly reflecting impressions, contorting them a…

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