GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) English Literary Criticism and Theory Study Material (Page 14 of 33)

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Formalism: Cleanth Brookes



  • Formalism refers to the school of literary criticism and theory which originated in the second decade of Twentieth century in Russia.
  • The Formalists were a group of likeminded Russian scholars: Viktor Shklovsky, Boris Eichenbaum, Roman Jakobson, Osip Brik et al. who shared theoretical interests.
  • There were two major schools of Russian Formalism: The Moscow Linguistic Circle l…

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Reader Response Theory; Wimsatt and Beardsley, Fallacies


Reader-Response Theory

  • Reader-Response Theory came as a contradictory theory to New Criticism and Formalism. The Formalist School, of which New Criticism later developed, emphasized on the form and structure of a particular text.
  • This response of the reader becomes basic ingredient in creating the text. Even though the intimations of reader՚s subjective attitude towards a text have been recognized by critics like I. A Richards, Rosenblatt and C. S. Lewis, the major works of Reader- Response Theory can be ascribed to those of Norman Holland, Stanley Fish, Wolfgang Iser, Hans-Robert Jauss, David Bleich and the later works of Roland Barthes.
  • Affective Stylist…

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