View 203 notes Detailed Notes on GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) Electronics

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There are **203 notes** study material on GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering) Electronics arranged below by topic-subtopic. Numbers in brackets number of titles on that topic/subtopic and effort as % of the total course. The green bars indicate the progress on a topic/subtopic (based on titles you have marked complete).

%

# Networks, Signals and Systems [16 Notes- 6.04% Effort]

## Network Solution Methods [1 Notes- 0.54% Effort]

## Network Theorems [12 Notes- 4.52% Effort]

- 1
- AC Circuit Analysis: Fundamental of AC Supply - Cycle, Time Period (T) , Frequency (F) , Instantaneous Voltage and Current, RMS Value, Average Value
- AC Circuit Analysis: Basic Circuit Operation with AC Supply, AC Circuit Operation- Simple R Circuit with AC, Simple L Circuit with AC Supply, Simple C Circuit with AC Supply, Series R and L Circuit, Series R and C Circuit, Series R, L and C Circuit
- 2
- AC Circuit Analysis: Parallel AC Circuits- Parallel R and L Circuit, Parallel R and C Circuit, Parallel R, L and C Circuit, Applications
- Field and Circuit Theory and Lumped Systems/Distributed System
- 3
- Network Theorems, Mathematical Modeling, and Analogous Physical Quantities
- Linear and Non-Linear Circuits, Electromagnetic Laws, Theorems, and Differential Equations
- 4
- Retarded Potentials and Radiation Resistance, Comparison between the Circuit Theory and Field Theory
- Network Impedance and PI and T Networks
- 5
- Impedance of a Transmission Line and L Shaped Reactive Networks
- Field and Circuit Theory
- 6
- Ohm՚s Law
- Inductance and Capacitance

## Linear 2-Port Network Parameters [3 Notes- 0.98% Effort]

- 1
- Two-Port Network Parameters: Two- Port Network Parameters- Admittance Parameters, Operation, Procedure, Impedance Parameters, Transmission Parameters, Hybrid Parameters
- Transfer Function: Two-Port Network Functions
- 2
- Transfer Function: Different Transfer Functions of the Two-Port Network- Transfer Impedance Functions, Transfer Admittance Functions, Voltage Transfer Function, Current Transfer Function

# Electronic Devices [25 Notes- 10.12% Effort]

## Energy Bands in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Silicon [25 Notes- 10.12% Effort]

- 1
- Diode & Its Applications
- Introduction to Optoelectronics, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Light Sources, Photo Detectors, Optical Fiber Communication, Application of Optoelectronics
- 2
- Energy Band: Introduction About Atomic Structure
- Energy Band: Definition: Energy Band
- 3
- P N-Junction: Introduction About the Semiconductors, Definition: P N-Junction
- Diode Equation and Diode Equivalent Circuit: Definition: Diode, Symbol of Diode, Construction of Diode
- 4
- Diode Equation and Diode Equivalent Circuit: Working Operation of Diode- Forward Bias Operation, Reverse Bias Operation
- P N Junction Diode: Definition, Construction, Working Principle, V-I Characteristics, Advantages, Disadvantages
- 5
- FET (Field Effect Transistor) : Definition, Working Principle, Classification, Output Characteristics of JFET, Parameters of JFET
- Zener Diode: Definition, Working Principle of Zener Diode, Zener Diode Circuit, V-I Characteristics of Zener Diode, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages
- 6
- MOSFET: FET (Field Effect Transistor) , MOSFET (Metal-Oxide Silicon Field Effect Transistor) - Construction of a MOSFET, Classification of MOSFETS, Characteristics of MOSFET
- Tunnel Diode: Definition, Working Principle, V-I Characteristics of the Tunnel Diode, Advantages of Tunnel Diode, Disadvantages, Applications of Tunnel Diode
- 7
- Diode Equation and Diode Equivalent Circuit: Diode Equation or Diode Law, Diode Equivalent Circuit
- Diode Equation and Diode Equivalent Circuit: Definition, Diode Equation, Diode Equivalent Circuit- Ideal Diode Equation, Non-Ideal Equation, Ideal Diode Model, Simplified Model, Piece-Wise Linear Model
- 8
- Optical Source - LED: Symbol, Circuit Operation of LED
- Optical Source - LED: Seven Segments LED
- 9
- Photo Transistor
- Solar Cell
- 10
- Semiconductor Diode Laser
- Optoelectronics
- 11
- Optical Couplers
- Calculations on Couplers: Optocouplers
- 12
- Applications and Specifications of Optical Couplers
- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductor
- 13
- Coulomb՚s Law

# Analog Circuits [30 Notes- 11.98% Effort]

## Simple Diode Circuits [6 Notes- 2.08% Effort]

- 1
- Rectifier: Schematic Diagram of Rectifier, Single Phases Half Wave Rectifier Explanation Transformer, Types of Rectifiers, Circuit Diagram, Contraction, Operation
- Rectifier: Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Bridage Rectifier- Circuit Diagram, Operation
- 2
- Rectifier: Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Bridage Thyrister Rectifier- Circuit Diagram, Construction, Operation, Applications of Rectifiers
- Diode Rectifiers
- 3
- Half-Wave Rectifiers
- TLE: Bridge Rectifier with RLE Load

## Single-Stage BJT and MOSFET Amplifiers [4 Notes- 1.18% Effort]

- 1
- Biasing of Transistor and JFET: BJT Biasing- Types of the Biasing Circuits, Collector to Base Bias, Self-Bias (Emitter Bias)
- Biasing of Transistor and JFET: JFET Biasing, Common Source Voltage Divider Biasing- Introduction, Circuit Diagram, Construction and Operation
- 2
- Single Stage Amplifier: Transistor Amplifier Types- Q-POINT or Quiescent Point
- Single Stage Amplifier: Single Stage Amplifier- Introduction, a. C. Equivalent Circuit of the Single Stage Amplifer, D. C Equivalent Circuit of the Single Stage Amplifer, Construction and Operation

## BJT and MOSFET Amplifiers [8 Notes- 2.16% Effort]

- 1
- Multi Stage Amplifier: Basic Two Stage RC Coupled Amplifier - Circuit Diagram, Construction and Operation, Frequency Response
- Multi Stage Amplifier: Frequency Response Characteristics of Two Stage RC Coupled Amplfier, Classes of Amplifier - Lower Cutoff Frequency (F
_{L}) , Upper Cut -Off Frequency (F_{H}) , Band Width (B_{W}) , Classification of Amplifier Classes, Amplifier – Class B - 2
- Feedback in Amplifier: Types of Feedback, Types of Negative Feedback Based on the Circuit Configurations- Positive Feedback, Negative Feedback, Application of Negative Feedback
- Feedback in Amplifier: Connection Diagrams of Negative Feedback, General Theory of Negative Feedback. Voltage Series Feedback, Voltage Shunt Feedback, Current Series Feedback, Current Shunt Feedback, Voltage Series Feedback, Advantage of Negative Feed Back, Applications
- 3
- Operational Amplifier Characteristics and Applications: Block Diagram of OP-AMPS, Characteristics of Ideal OP- AMP- Input, Output Stage, Intermediate Stage, Level Shifting Stage/Emitter Follower
- Operational Amplifier Characteristics and Applications: Simple Equivalent Circuit of OP- AMP, Applications of OP-AMP, Inverting Amplifier- Construction, Operation
- 4
- Operational Amplifier Characteristics and Applications: Summing Amplifier, Non- Inverting Amplifier
- Schmitt Trigger

## Sinusoidal Oscillators [10 Notes- 5.8% Effort]

- 1
- Oscillators and Barkhausen Criterion: Types of Oscillators, Sinusoidal Oscillator Types- Condition for Oscillation, Voltage Gain Without Feedback, Voltage Gain with Feedback
- LC Oscillator: Operation, Tank Circuit, Transistorized Amplifier, Feedback
- 2
- Oscillators: Crystal Oscillator - Introduction Crystal Oscillator, Construction, Operation, Applications
- Integrator: Operation, Frequency Response, Results, Wave Form, Applications
- 3
- Differentiator: Operation, Wave Form
- Function Generator: Operation, Waveform, Explanation, Applications
- 4
- Wave Shaping Circuits: General Categories of Wave Shaping Circuits, Clippers and Clampers
- Hartley Oscillator
- 5
- Colpitts՚s Oscillator
- Phase Shift Oscillator (RC Oscillator)

## Power Supplies [2 Notes- 0.74% Effort]

- 1
- Voltage Regulated IC՚s and Regulated Power Supply: Regulated Power Supply, the Regulated Power Supply Are Categories of Two Types, Linear Shunt Transistor Voltage Regulator, Voltage Regulated ICs
- Voltage Regulaterd ICS and Regulated Power Supply: Types of Voltage Regulator ICs, Variable Voltage Regulator, Applications of Regulated Power Supply- Fixed Voltage Regulators, Operation, IC LM 317 Regulator, Construction and Operation

# Digital Circuits [89 Notes- 46.01% Effort]

## Number Systems; Combinatorial Circuits [53 Notes- 23.55% Effort]

- 1
- What is Electronic Science – Its Branches
- Boolean Algebra: Boolean Algebra, Postulates, Laws and Theorems of Boolean Algebra
- 2
- Boolean Algebra: Simplification of Boolean Expression, De Morgans՚s Theorems- Points to Remember Regarding De Morgan՚s, Visualization of Signal Flow Using De Morgan՚s Theorem
- Multiplexer and De-Multiplexer: Multiplexer, De-Multiplexer- Logic Diagram, Construction, Operation
- 3
- Arithmetic Circuits: Arithmetic and Logic Circuit, Half Adder - Construction & Operation
- Arithmetic Circuits: Full Adder, Half Subtractor, Full Subtractor
- 4
- Gates
- Classification of Gates: Nor and NAND Gate
- 5
- Classification of Gates: EX-Or and EX-Nor Gate
- Realization of Gates: Universal Gates
- 6
- Boolean Algebra and Minimization Techniques
- Logic Families: Positive and Negative Logic, Types of Logic Families
- 7
- Characteristics of Logic Families
- Evolution of Logic Families
- 8
- TTL Families
- Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Logic Family
- 9
- Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) Family
- Interfacing with MOS and ECL Devices
- 10
- Number System
- Number Base Inter-Conversions
- 11
- Binary Codes
- Logic Gates
- 12
- IEEE/ANSI Standard Symbols
- Pulse Operations of Gates and Applications of Logic Gates
- 13
- Multiplexer and Demultiplexers
- Types of Multiplexer
- 14
- Multiplexer ICs and Cascading Multiplexer
- Applications of Multiplexers and Demultiplexers
- 15
- Demultiplexers ICs and Applications of Demultiplexers
- Combinational Circuits
- 16
- Comparator
- Boolean Algebra
- 17
- Laws of Boolean Algebra
- Simplification of Boolean Expressions
- 18
- Karnaugh Maps (Introduction, Minterms, Maxterms, POM, SOP, POS)
- Karnaugh Map (Application, Minimization, Don՚t Care)
- 19
- Basics of Decoder
- Binary Decoders
- 20
- Special Decoders
- Applications of Decoders
- 21
- Arithmetic Circuits
- Binary Subtractor
- 22
- Binary Multiplication
- Binary Division
- 23
- Fixed Point Arithmatic
- Floating-Point Representation
- 24
- Floating Point Arithmetic
- Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
- 25
- ALU ICs
- Hazards in Combinational Circuits
- 26
- Detection and Elimination of Hazards
- Simple Binary Encoders
- 27
- Basics of Encoders: Priority, Keyboard Encoder and Applications of Encoders

## Sequential Circuits [26 Notes- 14.97% Effort]

- 1
- Flip-Flops
- Types of Flip-Flops: JK Flip-Flop and JKMS Flip-Flop
- 2
- Types of Flip-Flops: D Flip-Flop and T Flip-Flop
- Race Around Condition in JK Flip Flop
- 3
- Counters - Ring Counter, Johnson Counter
- Ripple Counter
- 4
- Synchronous Counter: Synchronous up and down Counter
- Shift Registers
- 5
- Latches
- Latches: Active High and Low SR Latch
- 6
- Gated SR and D Latch
- Applications of Latches
- 7
- Flip – Flops
- Operating Characteristics of Flip-Flops
- 8
- Digital Electronics: Shift Registers
- Ring and Johnson Counter, Shift Register ICs
- 9
- Sequential Circuit Models
- Finite State Machine
- 10
- Behavior of Flip-Flops (SR, D, JK, T)
- Excitation Table and State Diagram
- 11
- Programmable Logic Devices
- SPLDs (PROM, PLA, GAL, ASIC)
- 12
- Sequential Circuits: 4 Bit Counter
- Sequential Circuits: Octave Frequency Division in Counters
- 13
- Steps in Designing a Sequential Circuits
- Sequential Circuits: Asynchronous Counter

## Data Converters [6 Notes- 4.91% Effort]

- 1
- A/D to D/A Converters: Digital to Analog Converter, Basic Concepts, Types of D/A Converters, Weighted Resistor (Summing Amplifier) D/A Converter
- A to D Converter: Analog to Digital Converter- Necessity, Sample and Hold Circuit, Types of A/D Converter, Successive Approximation A/D Converter- Construction, Operation
- 2
- DAC Introduction and Types
- Binary Weighted Method of DAC
- 3
- Types of A/D Converters, the Ultimate Guide, Introduction, Main Types of ADC Converters
- Sample and Hold Circuit Introduction, Performance Parameters

## Semiconductor Memories [2 Notes- 1.14% Effort]

- 1
- Memories: Semiconductor Memories, Memory Basic Terms, Types of Semiconductor Memory- Memory Cell, Memory Word, Byte, Read Operation, Read Only Operation
- Memories: RAM (Random Access Memory) , Bipolar RAM Cell, ROM, and CCD Devices (Types of Random Access Memory, Construction & Operation, Types of ROM Memory, Operation)

## 8-Bit Microprocessor (8085) [2 Notes- 1.41% Effort]

# Control Systems [5 Notes- 3.31% Effort]

## Basic Control System Components [5 Notes- 3.31% Effort]

- 1
- Physical Quantities & Supplementary Quantities
- Scalar and Vector Physical Quantities and Algebra of Vectors
- 2
- Scalar Product and Vector Product
- Concept of Co-Variance
- 3
- Contra-Variant

# Communications [8 Notes- 5.32% Effort]

## Analog Communications [8 Notes- 5.32% Effort]

- 1
- Frequency to Voltage and Voltage to Frequency Converters: Voltage to Frequency Converter, Frequency to Voltage Converter- Introduction, Applications, Frequency to Voltage Converter
- Phase Locked Loops (PLL) : Basics
- 2
- PLL: Phase Detectors
- Application of Optoelectronics
- 3
- Optical Fiber: Introduction, Structure and Propagation of Light
- Optical Fiber: Numerical Aperture, Pulse Broadening and Phase Front Analysis
- 4
- Optical Fiber
- Comparison of Optical Fibers

# Electromagnetics [30 Notes- 17.18% Effort]

## Electrostatics Maxwell's Equations [7 Notes- 4.13% Effort]

- 1
- Co-Ordinate System
- Unit Vector and Line, Area, and Volume Element
- 2
- Maxwell՚s Equation, Electric Force Field and Electromagnetic Properties of Media
- Laws of Electro-Magnetics from Maxwell՚s Equations and Modified Form of Amperes Law
- 3
- Poynting՚s Vector Theorem and Polarization of Electro-Magnetic Waves
- Operators, Gradient, Divergence, and Curl
- 4
- Co-Ordinate Systems, Mathematical Theorems, Differential Equations Involving and Vector Identities

## Plane Waves and Properties [5 Notes- 2.71% Effort]

- 1
- Helmholtz Equation and Method of Separation of Variables
- Helmholtz, Wave, and Bessel Differential Equation
- 2
- Plane Waves, Equations, Propagation Constant and Boundary Conditions
- EM Waves
- 3
- Wave Equation

## Transmission Lines [17 Notes- 10.02% Effort]

- 1
- Waveguides and Microwave Frequency Bands
- Terminology in Waveguides and Standard Waveguide Dimensions
- 2
- LCR Series Circuit, Relaxation Time, Lumped and Distributed Component Model and Transmission Line Equations
- Waveguides, Cavity Resonators and Antenna
- 3
- Numerical and Graphical Techniques
- Reflection and Transmission Line
- 4
- Standing Wave
- Microwave Transmission Lines
- 5
- Characteristics Impedance, Reflection and Transmission Co-Efficient and Transmission Line Equations
- Propagation Constant and Phase Velocity and Advantages of DC Lines
- 6
- Line Impedance and Admittance
- Hyperbolic Functions and Inter-Relational between Line Impedance, VSWR and Reflection Co-Efficient
- 7
- Experimental Determination of Propagation Constant and Characteristics and Normalized Impedance
- Input Impedance of a Transmission Line and Insertion Loss
- 8
- Quarter Wave Transformer and Characteristics Impedance
- Single Shunt Stub Matching
- 9
- Double Stub Matching