Bank-PO (IBPS) General-Awareness Banking and Finance Revision (Page 14 of 40)

D/P (documents against payment)

Refer to shipping documents presented to a bank on a collection basis to be passed to the buyer (drawee) when payment is made.


An instrument for raising long-term debt. Debentures in India are typically secured by tangible assets.

Debt/equity ratio

A comparative ratio of debt and equity used to measure the gearing/health of a business.

Default Risk Premium

The component of a required interest rate that is based on the lenders’ perceived risk of default.

Default Risk

The risk that a borrower may not repay principal and/or interest as originally agreed.


Generally, failure to satisfy an obligation when due, or the occurrence of one of the defined events of default agreed to by the parties under a contract.


An annual deduction of a part of the cost of an asset. In general, it means a decline in market value.

Direct Financing

Provision of funds for investment to the ultimate user of funds.

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