AP (Advanced Placement) World History: Questions 289 - 291 of 442

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Passage

Sufi Movement

A question I am often asked is, what is a Sufi? Sufis are Muslims who emphasize essence over form and substance over appearance in their spiritual practices. If the institution of religion can be compared to a cup and the water in it is the spiritual message, Sufis lament that we spend too much time polishing the outside of the cup and neglect to drink the water.

They do subscribe to outer rituals, but are mostly eager to do the inner work they aspire to taste and live the essence of their faith. To give an example of the Sufi approach to teachings, a conservative Islamic theologian might say that a Muslim who does not perform the five cycles of daily prayers will suffer punishment in the hereafter. A Sufi teacher, on the other hand, will liken prayers to attendance at celestial banquets. A practitioner who fails to pray is missing out on the joy of the feast. That loss is the punishment.

Sufism is not a denomination in Islam. The two main denominations are Sunni (85 percent) and Shia (15 percent) . The differences between Shia and Sunni are rooted in a historical dispute about the choice of a community leader after the death of the Prophet in 632 CE. Although both denominations share the same fundamental articles of faith, their historical conflict has created differences in forms of practices, which, to some, are significant. There are both Sunni and Shia Sufis. It is generally accepted that the spiritual beauty of the Sufi teachings is largely responsible for the spread of Islam in South, Southeast, and Central Asia, where the majority of Muslims live, and in China, Russia, Europe and parts of Africa.

Can a non-Muslim be a Sufi? Sufi teachers reply yes, and explain their answer with a metaphor. Muslims point their prayer rugs in the direction of the Kabah in Mecca. What happens if they become enlightened and find themselves praying inside the Kabah? In that state, does it matter in what direction the prayer rug is pointing?

Question 289 (1 of 3 Based on Passage)

Question

MCQ▾

Which among the given are the essential elements of Sufism?

Choices

Choice (5)Response

a.

The Sufis give emphasis on celibacy or complete renunciation of the world.

b.

Sufis emphasized on the realization of divine unity by arousing intuitive and spiritual facilities.

c.

The later Sufi movement was considered as anti-Islamic and orthodox Islamic ulemas branded them as heterodox.

d.

Complete abandonment of family life was emphasized by them.

e.

None of the above

Question 290 (2 of 3 Based on Passage)

Question

MCQ▾

Which among the given are the greatest impact of the Sufi movement.

Choices

Choice (5)Response

a.

The philosophy of Sufism believes in one god regards every individual as a part of him.

b.

Its transformed India into a single religion country.

c.

Its lead to the establishment of Delhi Sultanate in India.

d.

Due to the introduction of the Sufi Movement in India, it leads to the establishment of various architectural marvels in India.

e.

All of the above

Question 291 (3 of 3 Based on Passage)

Question

MCQ▾

Among Sufi՚s there are various sects or orders among them the Chishti order was most important, which among the given are the characteristic features of Chishti order.

Choices

Choice (5)Response

a.

Chishti saints possess a huge amount of properties which was considered to be a big factor responsible for their popularity.

b.

The Chishti order was the earliest and most liberal Sufi order in India.

c.

The Chishti saints were known for their extravaganza lifestyle.

d.

Chisti՚s order of Sufis has not confined itself into the religious sphere but it also involved in the economic activities.

e.

All of the above

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