View 469 notes Detailed Notes on AP (Advanced Placement) Human-Geography

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There are 469 notes study material on AP (Advanced Placement) Human-Geography arranged below by topic-subtopic. Numbers in brackets number of titles on that topic/subtopic and effort as % of the total course. The green bars indicate the progress on a topic/subtopic (once you have marked the titles complete ).

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Key Geography Concepts [198 Notes- 36.47% Effort]

  • 1
  • Themes of Geographical Studies
  • Divisions of Geography
  • 2
  • Latitude and Longitudes
  • Latitude and Longitudes: Heat Zones of Earth
  • 3
  • Common Terms
  • Rotation and Revolution
  • 4
  • Kepler՚s Three Laws and Solstice and Equinox
  • Change of Seasons: Effect of Rotation
  • 5
  • Geological Time Scale: Anthropocene
  • Major Subsystems of Earth: The “spheres” : Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, Cryosphere, Atmosphere, Biosphere
  • 6
  • Cartography: Introduction and Maps
  • Maps: History of Maps, Characteristics of Maps
  • 7
  • Maps: General Purpose Maps
  • Maps: Thematic or Special Purpose Maps
  • 8
  • Maps: Classification of Maps Based on Purpose
  • Indian Topographical Maps
  • 9
  • Relief Depiction: Elevation Analysis
  • Slope Analysis: Measurement of Slope (Grade) , Measurement of Slope (Angle)
  • 10
  • Slope Analysis: Historical Development of Slope Analysis, Complications in Slope Analysis, Slope Development
  • Projections
  • 11
  • Projections: Map Projection Terms
  • Projections: Map Projection Categorization Based on Projection Surface
  • 12
  • Projections: Categorization of Map Projections Based on Properties
  • Projections: Important Map Projections Part - 1
  • 13
  • Projections: Important Map Projections Part - 2
  • Surveying: Bearings and Azimuths
  • 14
  • Surveying: Comparison of Azimuths & Bearings
  • Surveying: Types of Surveys
  • 15
  • What is Geomorphology and Thornbury՚s Concepts
  • Factors Controlling Landform Development
  • 16
  • Endogenetic and Exogenetic Forces: Definitions, Forces Affecting Earth՚s Crust
  • Endogenetic and Exogenetic Forces: Folds
  • 17
  • Endogenetic and Exogenetic Forces: Faults
  • Fundamentals of Geomagnetism: Introduction, Origin: Dynamo Theory
  • 18
  • Fundamentals of Geomagnetism: Important Concepts
  • Fundamentals of Geomagnetism: Geomagnetic Models, IGRF and WMM Models, Paleomagnetism
  • 19
  • Fundamentals of Geomagnetism: Geomagnetic Reversals, Magnetic Field Detection
  • Supercontinents
  • 20
  • Ground Water: Introduction, Types of Water
  • Ground Water: Zones of Underground Water
  • 21
  • Ground Water: Aquifers, Water Table
  • Ground Water: Movement of Groundwater
  • 22
  • Ground Water: Factors Affecting Groundwater Flow
  • Ground Water: Factors Affecting Ground Water Presence
  • 23
  • Aeolian Landforms: Types of Deserts
  • Aeolian Landforms: Methods of Wind Erosion, Wind Transportation
  • 24
  • Aeolian Landforms: Erosional Landforms
  • Aeolian Landforms: Depositional Landforms
  • 25
  • Main Stages of Geographical Development: Ancient Developments
  • Main Stages of Geographical Development: Middle Ages, Early Modern Times
  • 26
  • Main Stages of Geographical Development : Founders of Modern Geography
  • Main Stages of Geographical Development: New Directions
  • 27
  • Main Stages of Geographical Development: The Present, the Future
  • Evolution of Geography: Infantile Stage, Childhood Stage, Adolescent Stage, Maturity
  • 28
  • Dichotomy and Dualism: Nomothetic vs. Idiographic
  • Dichotomy and Dualism: Systematic/General vs. Regional Geography
  • 29
  • Dichotomy and Dualism: Deterministic vs. Possibilistic Geography
  • Dichotomy and Dualism: Physical vs. Human Geography
  • 30
  • Dichotomy and Dualism: Historical vs. Contemporary Geography, Qualitative vs. Quantitative, Study of Formal Sites vs. Study of Functional Sites
  • Geography as Science of Places (Chorology)
  • 31
  • Geography as Morphology of Landscape (Cultural Landscape)
  • Ancient Geography: Greek Contribution
  • 32
  • Ancient Geography: Roman Contribution
  • Ancient Geography: Dark Ages in Europe
  • 33
  • Ancient Geography: Indian Contribution- History of Mapping of India, Works of Major Indian Scholars
  • Ancient Geography: Indian Contribution - Concepts on Origin of Earth, Ancient Indian Geographical Concepts, Different Views of Indologists & Western Scholars
  • 34
  • Ancient Geography: Indian Contribution - Ancient Indian Geographical Concepts, Major Rivers (Rigveda)
  • Ancient Geography: Indian Contribution - Ancient Indian Geographical Concepts, Major Regions (Rigveda)
  • 35
  • Ancient Geography: Indian Contribution - Ancient Indian Geographical Concepts, Latitudes (Akshansa) & Longitudes (Deshantra) , Directions, Climate, Earthquakes (Bhukampas)
  • Ancient Geography: Indian Contribution - Ancient Indian Geographical Concepts, Astronomy, Spatial Distribution of Tribes, Spatial Distribution of Tribes in Early Vedic Period, Spatial Distribution of Tribes in Later Vedic Period. Major Birds & Animals, Plants
  • 36
  • Ancient Geography: Indian Contribution - Ancient Indian Cosmological Concepts: Structure of Vedic Universe, Geographical vs. Cosmological Views of Ancient Indian Texts, the Sphere of Universe
  • Ancient Geography: Indian Contribution - Ancient Indian Cosmological Concepts: Structure of Vedic Universe, Details of Bhuloka
  • 37
  • Ancient Geography: Indian Contribution - Ancient Indian Cosmological Concepts: Structure of Vedic Universe, Details of Jambudvipa According to Puranic Views, Bhuloka & Jambudvipa According to Jainism
  • Ancient Geography: Indian Contribution - Ancient Indian Cosmological Concepts: Structure of Vedic Universe, Bhuloka & Jambudvipa According to Buddhism, Puranic Concepts & Modern Geographical Features, Puranic History of Name Bharat
  • 38
  • Ancient Geography: Arab Contribution
  • Ancient Geography: Chinese Contributions- Important Geographical Milestones in China
  • 39
  • Ancient Geography: Chinese Contributions- 5 Types of Chinese Geography, Chinese Geography & Astronomy, Chinese Cartography
  • Ancient Geography: Chinese Contributions- Important Chinese Contributors to Geography
  • 40
  • Medieval Geography: German Geographers, Indian Contribution
  • Human Geography: Major Terms Part-1
  • 41
  • Human Geography: Major Terms Part-2
  • Scholars: Nationality, Views and Concepts
  • 42
  • Major Geographers and Their Contributions (Part-1)
  • Major Geographers and Their Contributions (Part-2)
  • 43
  • Major Geographers and Their Contributions (Part-3)
  • Major GeographAll Works Are Lost Except Some Which Are Preserved in Hipparchu Ers and Their Contributions (Part-4)
  • 44
  • Major Geographers and Their Contributions (Part-5)
  • Major Geographers and Their Contributions (Part-6)
  • 45
  • Major Geographers and Their Contributions (Part-7)
  • Major Geographers and Their Contributions (Part-8)
  • 46
  • Major Geographers and Their Contributions (Part-9)
  • Major Geographers and Their Contributions (Part-10)
  • 47
  • Major Geographers and Their Contributions (Part-11)
  • Major Geographers and Their Contributions (Part-12)
  • 48
  • Major Geographers and Their Contributions (Part-13)
  • Relationship of Geography with Other Disciplines: Introduction, Interactions or Relations with Other Sciences, Branches of Geography
  • 49
  • Relationship of Geography with Other Disciplines: Relations with Social Sciences
  • Contributions of Greek Scholars in Geography: Introduction, Roots of Greek Scholarship
  • 50
  • Contributions of Greek Scholars in Geography: Major Greek Philosophers- Herodotus, Plato
  • Contributions of Roman Geographers, Contribution to Various Sub Branches of Geography
  • 51
  • Contributions of Arab Geographers: Introduction, Historical Background, Prominent Arab Scholars
  • Contributions of Arab Geographers: Contribution to Different Branches of Geography
  • 52
  • Impact of Voyages, Discoveries, and Renaissance on Geographical Thought: Introduction, Birth of the Age of Explorations
  • Impact of Voyages, Discoveries, and Renaissance on Geographical Thought: The Impacts of Voyages and Discoveries, the Positive Gains of this Period, End of the Age of the Explorations
  • 53
  • Evolution of Geographical Thought in India: Introduction, the Roots of Indian Geography in the Ancient Literature, Indian Geography During the Middle Ages
  • The Myth and Reality of Dualisms: Meaning of Dualism and Dichotomy in Geography, Systematic Geography Versus Regional Geography
  • 54
  • The Myth and Reality of Dualisms: Physical Geography Versus Human Geography, Historical Geography Versus Contemporary Geography
  • Regional Geography vs. Systematic Geography Idiographic vs. Nomothetic Deductive vs. , Inductive Argument, Richard Hartshorne and Prof. Schaeffer Debate Conclusion
  • 55
  • Schaefer՚s – Hartshorne Debate: Introduction, Excepetionalism in Geography
  • Schaefr – Hartshorne Debate: Challenging the Claim for Exceptionalism in Geography, Exceptionalism in Geography: Re Examined
  • 56
  • Exceptionalism in Geography: What is Exceptionalism?
  • Co-Ordinate Systems
  • 57
  • Rectangular Coordinates/Cartesian Co-Ordinates
  • National and Indian Grid System
  • 58
  • Non-Coordinate Systems and Co-Ordinate Transformation
  • Map Projection
  • 59
  • Method of Projection & Major Projections
  • The Lambert Conformal Conic Projection & Polyconic Projection
  • 60
  • Map Designing
  • Use of Color
  • 61
  • Text Characteristics
  • Nature and Development of Geomorphology
  • 62
  • Historical Development
  • Models in Geomorphology
  • 63
  • Physical Systems: Mathematical and Experimental Design Models
  • General Systems, Synthetic Systems and Partial Systems
  • 64
  • Earth Movements
  • Type of Earth Movements: Orogenic and Cymatogenic Movements
  • 65
  • Morphogenetic Region
  • Morphoclimatic Zones
  • 66
  • Constitution of the Earth՚s Interior
  • Pressure, Temperature & Density: Interior of Earth
  • 67
  • Natural Sources
  • Interpretation of Propagating Different Waves
  • 68
  • Chemical Composition of the Earth
  • Mass Wasting
  • 69
  • Modes of Movement in Mass Wasting
  • Factors Controlling Mass Wasting
  • 70
  • Types of Mass Wasting
  • Folding and Faulting
  • 71
  • Folds and Basic Fold Geometry
  • Fault and Basic Geometry and Classification of Faults
  • 72
  • Thrust or Reverse Fault
  • Encyclopedism
  • 73
  • Feedback and Threshold
  • Urbanisation: Spatial Dimension of Urbanisation, Determinants of Urbanisation
  • 74
  • Global Level Trends
  • Urban Areas: Various Perspectives, Characteristics of Urban Areas, Economic Base of an Urban Area, Global Definitions of Urban Areas and Definition of Urban Areas in India
  • 75
  • Components/Land Uses in an Urban Area; Types of Urban Areas Based on Characteristics
  • Urbanization
  • 76
  • Causes & Implications of Urbanisation in India
  • State of Today՚s Urban Areas
  • 77
  • City in the Context of the Region
  • Classification of Regions: Planning Scales; Classification of Regions: Stages of Economic Development, Classification of Regions: Activities and Delineation of the Region of a City- Methods
  • 78
  • Classification of City-Region; Classification of Regions: Planning Scales
  • Classification of Regions: Stages of Economic Development; Variables for Delineation, Delineation of the Region of a City: Flows, Delineation of the Region of a City: Socio-Economic and Delineation of the Region of a City- Methods
  • 79
  • Evolution of Settlements
  • Shang Dynasty (1766 to 1122 BCE) ; Aegean Civilization/Greek Culture and Vedic Civilization (1100 - 200 BCE)
  • 80
  • Land Use Classification
  • End of Middle Age (1500 ACE) , Islamic Renaissance (7th - 13th Century ACE) , Ottoman Empire (1300 - 1922 ACE) and Baroque Period (1600 - 1750 ACE)
  • 81
  • Meso American Civilizations
  • Metro Planning Epathshala: Medieval India- Mughal Period (8th -18th Century ACE)
  • 82
  • Metro Planning Epathshala: Medieval India- Mughal Period (8th -18th Century ACE) , Problems in Town Planning, and Post- Independence
  • History of Town Planning
  • 83
  • Theories of Planning
  • Planned Cities
  • 84
  • ACTS
  • Financing for Urban Development in India
  • 85
  • Innovative Resource Mobilization for Urban India
  • Policies
  • 86
  • New Towns
  • Counter Magnets
  • 87
  • Satellite Town
  • Missions
  • 88
  • Schemes
  • Master Plan
  • 89
  • Central Place Theory
  • Schumpeter՚s Model; Sector Model, Multiple Nuclei Theory
  • 90
  • Cumulative Causation Theory, Growth Pole Theory, Environmental Kuznets՚s Curve
  • Stage Theory: Marxist Theory, Public Choice Theory
  • 91
  • Planning Techniques
  • Utilities and Services Survey; Survey of Community Facilities, Transportation Surveys, Objectives & Expected Outcome, Infrastructure Survey
  • 92
  • Urbanization Global Implication
  • Global Level Implications of Urbanisation
  • 93
  • Planning Techniques: Introduction, Social Infrastructure Analysis, Data Sources
  • History of Town Planning in India
  • 94
  • Forecasting in Planning
  • Eco Cities
  • 95
  • Eco Cities Case Studies
  • Sustainable Cities
  • 96
  • Sustainable Cities Case Studies
  • Low Carbon Cities
  • 97
  • Resilient Cities
  • Healthy Cities
  • 98
  • Safe Cities
  • Liveable Cities
  • 99
  • Smart Cities: Definition, Components, Singapore City
  • Fault Scrap and Fault-Line Scrap
  • Population [39 Notes- 9.35% Effort]

  • 1
  • Population Geography: Introduction, Sources of Population Data- Sample, Sources, Projections & Estimates of Population Data
  • Errors in Population Data: True Values, Sample Values & Observational Error, Sampling vs Non-Sampling Errors, Non-Sampling Errors
  • 2
  • Errors in Population Data: Sampling Error, Measurement and Control of Errors, Systematic and Non-Systematic Errors
  • Population Theories: Malthusian Model- Key Aspects of Malthusian Model, Postulates of Malthusian Model, Critics of Malthusian Model, Importance of Malthusian Model
  • 3
  • Population Theories: The Optimum Theory of Population, Marxian Model
  • Population Theories: Demographic Transition Model- Stages in the Model, Processes in Demographic Transition Model, Concept Behind Demographic Transition Model, Relevance & Criticism of Demographic Transition Model
  • 4
  • Population Theories: Epidemiologic Transition Model, Michael Thomas Sadler՚s: Law of Population
  • Population Theories: Leibenstein՚s Motivational Theory of Population Growth- Concept of Fertility Gap, Cost-Benefit Analysis of Bringing up a Child, Limits to Growth Criticisms of Leibenstein՚s Theory, Extending Leibenstein՚s Model of Population Growth
  • 5
  • Population Theories: Other Theories on Population, Classification of Theories of Population
  • Population-Resource Regions: Ackerman՚s Classification, Classification Based on Prospects
  • 6
  • Growth of Population: Population Growth of a Period is Calculated in Two Parts, Temporal Population Growth Trend, World Population Development, World Population Growth, Spatial Population Growth Trend in Millions, Spatial Population Doubling Trend
  • Growth of Population: Important Trends in Population Growth
  • 7
  • Growth of Population: Components of Population Growth or Change
  • Distribution of Population: Some Facts, Factors Affecting Population Distribution, Ecumene and Non-Ecumene Population Distribution
  • 8
  • Demographic Attributes: Age-Sex Pyramid- Types of Population Pyramid, Factors Affecting Shape of Pyramid
  • Demographic Attributes: Sex Composition- Types of Sex Ratio, Factors Affecting Sex Ratio
  • 9
  • Demographic Attributes: Population Density- Factors Affecting Density of Population, Types of Population Density, Spatial Variations of Population Density
  • Demographic Attributes: Life Expectancy, Literacy
  • 10
  • Migration: Types of Migration
  • Migration: Causes of Migration, Consequences of Migration
  • 11
  • Migration: Theories of Migration- Ravenstein՚s Law of Migration (1843 - 1913) , Push Pull Theory by Lee (Intervening Obstacles)
  • Migration: Theories of Migration - Gravity Model, Intervening Opportunities by Stouffer, Zipf՚s Principle of Least Effort
  • 12
  • Migration: Theories of Migration - Competing Migrants Model, Zelinsky Migration Transition Model, Neo Classical Economic Theory (Wages) , Dual Labor Market Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, Chain Migration, World Systems Theory
  • Optimum Population: Definition, Historical Background, Variations of Optimum Population, Characteristics of Optimum Population, Assumptions
  • 13
  • Optimum Population: Mathematical Concept- Factors Affecting Optimum Population, Marginal Product of Labor
  • Optimum Population: Limitations of Optimal Population, Optimum Population vs. Malthusian Theory
  • 14
  • World Population Problems and Policies: Over-Population- Reasons for Overpopulation, Types of over-Population, Problems of over-Population, Solutions to Problem of over-Population
  • World Population Problems and Policies: Under-Population- Types of under-Population, Issues of under-Population (in Developed Countries) , Solutions to Problem of under-Population, Malthusian Model Versus Optimum Theory
  • 15
  • Population as Social Capital: Basic Concept, Comparison between Social Capital and Other Capitals, Social Capital and Human Capital (Population) Effect of Social Capital on Human Capital, Social Capital in Geography
  • Industrial, Population and Settlement Geography: Major Terms (a to D)
  • 16
  • Industrial, Population and Settlement Geography: Major Terms (E to M)
  • Industrial, Population and Settlement Geography: Major Terms (N to R)
  • 17
  • Population and Resource Relationship: Malthusian Perspective, Optimum Population Theory
  • Population and Resource Regions: Global Population and Resource, Population and Resource Regions
  • 18
  • Population and Resource Regions: Population Resource Regions of India
  • Impelled Migration and Norris Theory
  • 19
  • Norris Theory
  • Baby Boom
  • 20
  • Demographic Transition Theory
  • Culture [20 Notes- 5.08% Effort]

  • 1
  • Cultural Geography: Introduction, Culture, Environment and Culture, Cultural Landscape, Elements of Culture
  • Cultural Geography: Characteristics of Culture, Components of Culture, Interaction and Adaptation of Cultures, Cultural Terminology
  • 2
  • Cultural Geography: Huxley՚s Classification - Cultural Components, Leslie White՚s Classification, Cultural Hierarchy, Carl Sauer՚s Cultural Landscape
  • Cultural Geography: Cultural Landscape Components, Functions of Culture, Modes of Acquiring Culture
  • 3
  • Cultural Geography: Nature and Scope of Cultural Geography, Objectives of Cultural Geography
  • Cultural Geography: Cultural Heritage- Aspects of Cultural Heritage, Protecting Cultural Heritage, Where to Find and Preserve Cultural Heritage, Heritage Cycle by Simon Thurley
  • 4
  • Cultural Geography: Cultural Area, Cultural Regions, Culture Sustainability, Cultural Ecology, Cultural Convergence
  • Cultural Classification: Hans Carol Classification and Development Stages
  • 5
  • Cultural Regions of World: Types of Culture Regions, Cultural Realms of World
  • Dialect: Languages- “Language in Culture” & “Language and Culture”
  • 6
  • Languages: Language Ability of Population, Terminologies, Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
  • Languages: Distribution of Major Languages of the World, Classification of Languages
  • 7
  • Human Races and Ethnicity: Race, Ethnicity and Nationality, Ethnicity Terminology, Charter Groups and Doctrine of First Effective Settlement
  • Human Races and Ethnicity: Distribution of Ethnicity in USA, Origin of Race, Classification of Races
  • 8
  • Human Races and Ethnicity: Major Human Races, Racism
  • Human Development Index: Human Development Indices, Human Development Index (HDI)
  • 9
  • Dwelling Places as Cultural Expression: Dwelling, Dwelling and Environment
  • Neo – Colonialism and Cultural Landscape
  • 10
  • Cultural Landscape
  • Popular and Folk Culture
  • The Political Organization of Space [51 Notes- 10.41% Effort]

  • 1
  • Political Geography: Introduction to Political Geography, Structure of Political Geography, Evolution
  • Political Geography: Nature and Scope of Political Geography, Stages in Political Development, Organization of State
  • 2
  • Geopolitics: Important Definitions of Geopolitics, Geostrategy, Geopolitics and Political Geography
  • Geopolitics: Global Geopolitics- John Agnew Views on Geopolitics, Geoffrey Sloan Views on Geopolitics, Gerard Toal Views on Geopolitics
  • 3
  • Geopolitics of Climate Change: Rising Greenhouse Gases (GHG) , Environmental Determinism: Effect of Climate on Civilizations
  • Geopolitics of Climate Change: Integrating Climate Change in Geopolitics
  • 4
  • Geopolitics of Climate Change: Geopolitics in Climate Solutions
  • Geopolitics of Climate Change: Impacts of Climate Change and Rising Conflicts
  • 5
  • Geopolitics of Resources: Resources as the Source of Power, Desire to Control Resources
  • Geopolitics of Resources: Geopolitics for Controlling Trade Routes, Geopolitics for Controlling Resources, Treaties Regulating Natural Resources
  • 6
  • Geopolitics of Energy (Oil & Gas) : Importance of Oil, Needs of Oil & Gas Supplying Nations
  • Geopolitics of Energy (Oil & Gas) : Understanding Oil & Gas Production & Pricing, Geopolitics of Transporting Oil and Gas
  • 7
  • Geopolitics of Energy (Oil & Gas) : Neopolitics of Energy
  • Geopolitics of Energy (Oil & Gas) : Neopolitics: Growth of Renewable Energy
  • 8
  • Geopolitics of Energy (Oil & Gas) : Fossil Fuel Economies vs. Renewable Energy Geopolitics of Rare Earth Minerals
  • Geopolitics of Water Crisis: Reasons for Poor Access to Drinking Water, Geopolitics and Access to Water and Water Routes
  • 9
  • Geopolitics of Water Crisis: Case Studies on Geopolitics of Water, Important International Treaties
  • Trade & Geopolitical Economy: Capitalism and Imperialism, Changing Geopolitics Due to Globalization
  • 10
  • Trade & Geopolitical Economy: Impacts of Globalization: Free Trade to Market Access
  • Trade & Geopolitical Economy: New Developments: Moving Away from Free-Trade, Control of Trade Routes
  • 11
  • Trade & Geopolitical Economy: International Trade Treaties
  • Nation, State and Nation-State: Nation, State, Nation-State, Stateless Nation
  • 12
  • Boundaries and Frontiers: Frontiers- Classification of Frontiers
  • Boundaries and Frontiers: Boundaries- Stages of Development of Boundaries, Classification of Boundaries, Functions of Boundaries
  • 13
  • Boundaries and Frontiers: Differences between Boundaries and Frontiers
  • Theories in Political Geography: Heartland Theory- Key Aspects of Heartland Theory, Criticism of Heartland Theory
  • 14
  • Theories in Political Geography: Rimland Theory
  • Theories in Political Geography: Shatterbelt Theory, Sea Power Theory, Containment Theory, Functional Approach
  • 15
  • Theories in Political Geography: Unified Field Theory, Kjellen՚s Views, Geopolitik (Haushofer) , Lebensraum (Ratzel) , Airpower Supremacy Theory
  • Electoral Geography: Basic Terms, Distortions in Electoral Geography
  • 16
  • Electoral Geography: Proportional Representation- Prerequisites, Types of Proportional Representation
  • Determinants of Voting Behavior: Functions of Voting, Major Determinants of Voting Behavior
  • 17
  • Geography of Public Finance: Indian Context
  • Geography of Public Policy: Definition, Aspects of Geographical Study of Public Policy
  • 18
  • Politics of World Resources: Spatial Conflicts, North-South Divide
  • Geography and Federalism: Definitions on Federation, Geographical Factors Motivating Creation of Federal State, Other Factors Motivating Creation of Federal State, Characteristics of Federation
  • 19
  • Political, Cultural and Social Geography: Major Terms (a to D)
  • Political, Cultural and Social Geography: Major Terms (E to R)
  • 20
  • Political, Cultural and Social Geography: Major Terms (S to V)
  • Geopolitics of Resources: Definition, Concept of Geopolitics, Establishing the Relation between Geopolitics and Resources
  • 21
  • Geopolitics of Resources: Resource and the Politics of Power, Relevance of Natural Resources, Classification of Resources Form a Geopolitical Basis, Resource and National Strategy, Resource Disputes
  • Geopolitical Issue Related to Trade: Geopolitical Role of Trade, Geopolitics in Trade Routes, Geopolitical Disputes in Trade
  • 22
  • Issues Related to Geopolitics on Energy Crisis: Understanding the Geopolitics of Energy- Energy as a Geopolitical Strategy, Energy as a Weapon
  • Issues Related to Geopolitics on Energy Crisis: Geopolitics of Oil and Natural Gas, the Geo and Politics of Oil, Geopolitics of Oil and Gas Pipeline
  • 23
  • Issues Related to Geopolitics on Energy Crisis: Understanding the Geopolitics of Renewable Energy, Geopolitics of Minerals for Renewable Energy, Future Implications
  • Geopolitical Issues Related to Water Crisis: Water Crisis Across the Globe, Preventable Deaths
  • 24
  • Geopolitical Issues Related to Water Crisis: Geopolitics of Water, Looking Beyond Water Politics
  • Geopolitical Issues Related to Climatic Change and Climate Variability: Understanding Climate Variability and Climate Change, Causes of Climatic Variability, Causes of Climate Change
  • 25
  • Geopolitical Issues Related to Climatic Change and Climate Variability: Geo-Politico Economic Perspective of Climate Change, Geo-Political Solution to Climate Change
  • Geopolitical Treatise & Agreements: Treaties and Agreements Related to Trade, Intellectual Property Rights and Free Trade Agreements, Treatise and Agreements Related to Energy
  • 26
  • Geopolitical Treatise & Agreements: Treatise and Agreements Related to Water, Treatise and Agreements Related to Climate
  • Agriculture and Rural Land Use [47 Notes- 10.47% Effort]

  • 1
  • World Agriculture Systems: Approaches to Study Agricultural Geography
  • World Agriculture Systems: Various Schemes of Classification, Whittlesey Classification
  • 2
  • World Agriculture Systems: Crop Distribution
  • Typology of Agricultural Regions: Major Agricultural Systems and Typologies of World- Subsistence Agriculture, Intensive and Extensive Farming
  • 3
  • Typology of Agricultural Regions: Major Agricultural Systems and Typologies of World -Nomadic Herding, Shifting Cultivation
  • Typology of Agricultural Regions: Major Agricultural Systems and Typologies of World- Rudimentary Sedentary Tillage, Rudimentary Sedentary Tillage
  • 4
  • Typology of Agricultural Regions: Major Agricultural Systems and Typologies of World- Subsistence Crop and Livestock Farming, Mediterranean Agriculture, Livestock Ranching
  • Typology of Agricultural Regions: Major Agricultural Systems and Typologies of World- Extensive Commercial Grain Farming, Commercial Livestock and Crop Farming (Mixed Farming) , Commercial Dairy-Farming
  • 5
  • Typology of Agricultural Regions: Major Agricultural Systems and Typologies of World- Factory Farming
  • Typology of Agricultural Regions: Major Agricultural Systems and Typologies of World- Horticulture
  • 6
  • Typology of Agricultural Regions: Major Agricultural Systems and Typologies of World- Sericulture, Organic Farming, Collective Farming
  • Typology of Agricultural Regions: Major Agricultural Systems and Typologies of World- Commercial Plantation Farming
  • 7
  • Typology of Agricultural Regions: Agricultural Types
  • Typology of Agricultural Regions: Agricultural Typologies Based on Attributes
  • 8
  • Agricultural Inputs and Productivity: Agricultural Inputs
  • Agricultural Inputs and Productivity: Agricultural Productivity
  • 9
  • Food and Nutrition Problems: Concept, Major Nutritional Problems
  • Food and Nutrition Problems: Defining Nutritional Problems
  • 10
  • Food and Nutrition Problems: Causes of Food Problems, Future Efforts
  • Food Security: Pillars of Food Security
  • 11
  • Food Security: Issues Related to Food Security, Global Scenario
  • Food Security: Ways to Improve Food Security
  • 12
  • Food Security: Threat to Food Security
  • Areal Crop Combination Classification: Basic Concept, Weaver՚s Concept
  • 13
  • Areal Crop Combination Classification: Doi՚s Concept, Rafiullah՚s Concept
  • Crop Diversification: Introduction, Factors Promoting Diversification
  • 14
  • Crop Diversification: Need and Importance for Crop Diversification, Need and Importance for Crop Diversification, Major Constraints in Crop Diversification, Future Thrust Areas
  • Von Thunen՚s Model of Agricultural Location: Aim of the Model, Model Variables, Model Assumptions, Principle of Model
  • 15
  • Von Thunen՚s Model of Agricultural Location: Cultivation and Crop Model, Concentric Circles, Criticism of Model, Application of the Model
  • Alonso Extension (in Urban Context) : Assumptions, the Bid-Rent Curve, Consideration of Customers
  • 16
  • Alonso Extension (in Urban Context) : Individual Bid-Rent Curves, Optimum Location, Stages of Alonso՚s Theory, Applications
  • Olof Jonasson՚s Theory
  • 17
  • Robert Sinclair՚s Theory: Assumptions of the Model
  • Famine: Cause of Famines, Remedies
  • 18
  • Famine : Effects of Famines, Noteworthy Famines
  • Economic & Agricultural Geography: Major Terms (a to F)
  • 19
  • Economic & Agricultural Geography: Major Terms (G to M)
  • Economic & Agricultural Geography: Major Terms (N to W)
  • 20
  • Rural Settlements: Morphology of Rural Settlement, Types and Patterns of Rural Settlement
  • Rural Settlements: Shape Analysis- Shape Index, Packing Efficiency
  • 21
  • Rural Settlements: Factors Affecting Growth and Types of Rural Settlements, Evolution and Growth of Rural Settlements, Problems with Rural Settlements
  • Neo Plantation
  • 22
  • Contract Farming
  • Co-Operative Farming
  • 23
  • Quota System of Fishing
  • Capitalistic Agriculture
  • 24
  • Graham՚s Theory of Land Use
  • Industrialization and Economic Development [21 Notes- 4.18% Effort]

  • 1
  • Knowledge (Education, Research & Development) Industries: Education, Communication, Health and Medical Products
  • World Distribution & Growth of ICT: Applications of ICT, Access to Technical Resources and Internet, GIS and Remote Sensing
  • 2
  • World Distribution & Growth of ICT: GPS (Global Positioning System) , Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D) , Artificial Intelligence (AI) , Machine Learning
  • World Distribution & Growth of ICT: GeoAI- Applications of GeoAI, Role of Data Sharing in GeoAI, Spatially Explicit Models, Question Answering and Summarization, Social Sensing
  • 3
  • World Distribution & Growth of ICT: GeoAI- Datasets and Reproducibility, Machine Learning in GIS, Deep Learning in Geospatial Analysis, Deep Learning for Mapping, Future Ahead
  • Industrial Geography: Classification of Industries- Based on Types of Raw Materials, Based on Role, Based on Capital Investment, Based on Ownership, Resource and Footloose Industries
  • 4
  • Locational Patterns: Physical Factors, Human and Economic Factors, Governmental Factors
  • Problems in Industrial Location: Industrial Development Phases- Indian Scenario
  • 5
  • Theories of Industrial Location: Approaches of Location Theories, Natural Laws Deciding Industrial Locations (Determinism)
  • Weber՚s Model of Industrial Location: Commonly Used Terms, Assumptions of Weber՚s Model
  • 6
  • Weber՚s Model of Industrial Location: Principles and Details of Weber՚s Model
  • Weber՚s Model of Industrial Location: Criticism and Infirmities in Weber՚s Model, Advantages of Weber՚s Model
  • 7
  • Hotelling՚s Model: Assumptions of Hotelling՚s Model, Explanation of Hotelling՚s Model, Findings of Hotelling՚s Model
  • Losch՚s Model of Industrial Approach: Basis of Losch՚s Model, Concept of Losch՚s Model, Limitations of Losch՚s Model
  • 8
  • Other Major Industrial Theories: Fetter՚s Law of Industrial Location
  • Other Major Industrial Theories: Renner՚s Theory of Industrial Location, Rawstron՚s Theory of Industrial Location or Locational Cost Analysis Theory
  • 9
  • Other Major Industrial Theories: Smith՚s Theory of Industrial Location or Area-Cost Curve Theory
  • Other Major Industrial Theories: Tord Palander՚s Theory, Principle of Substitution (Predohl)
  • 10
  • Other Major Industrial Theories: Edger Hoover՚s Location Theory, Greenhut՚s Location Theory
  • Other Major Industrial Theories: Sargant Florence՚s Theory of Localization, Isard՚s Theory of Industrial Location
  • 11
  • Other Major Industrial Theories: Adam Smith՚s Early Ideas on Industrial Location, Case Studies in Locational Theories
  • Cities and Urban Land Use [93 Notes- 24.01% Effort]

  • 1
  • Settlement Geography: Introduction, Important Definitions, Theories of Location of Settlement, Important Characteristics of Settlement
  • Urban Settlements
  • 2
  • Hierarchy of Settlements: Hierarchy Based on Size or Services
  • Hierarchy of Settlements: Hierarchy Based on Administrative Regions
  • 3
  • Differences between Rural and Urban Settlements
  • Urban Morphology and City Classification: City “in” Area and City “as” Area, Elements of Urban Area: Urban Ecology, Classifications Based on Age or Morphology
  • 4
  • Urban Morphology and City Classification: Classification Based on Growth of Civilization- Lewis Mumford, City Classification Based on Technology, City Classification Based on Cultural Rise & Fall
  • Urban Morphology and City Classification: Classification Based on Size
  • 5
  • Urban Morphology and City Classification: Classification Based on Functions, Classification Based on Hierarchy, Classification Based on Location or Site, Genetic Classification
  • Urban Form: Types of Urban Form, Scale of Study of Urban Form
  • 6
  • Urban Form: Determinants of Urban Form- Density, Crime
  • Urban Form: Determinants of Urban Form- Land Use, Accessibility and Transport Infrastructure, Urban Layout, Housing and Building Characteristics, Integrated Elements
  • 7
  • Urban Form: Urban Social Area Analysis Model- Merits, Demerits
  • Urban Land Use Models: Concentric Zone Theory: Burgess Model- Zones Demarcated in Theory, Basis of Theory, Criticism of Theory
  • 8
  • Urban Land Use Models: Sector Theory (Hoyt Model) - Application, Limitations
  • Urban Land Use Models: Multiple Nuclei Theory- Basis of Theory, Assumptions of Theory, Advantages of the Theory, Disadvantages of the Theory
  • 9
  • Functional Classification of Towns: Aurousseau՚s Classification, C. D. Harris Classification
  • Functional Classification of Towns: Alexanderson՚s Classification, Webb՚s Classification, Moser and Scott Classification
  • 10
  • Functional Classification of Towns: Nelson՚s Classification, Richard L. Forstall՚s Classification
  • Functional Classification of Towns: Maxwell՚s Classification, Other Important Classifications
  • 11
  • Functional Classification of Towns: Commonly Used Functional Classification
  • Central Place Theories: Christaller՚s Theory- Assumptions of the Theory, Terms Used by Christaller, Principles, Results from Theory
  • 12
  • Central Place Theories: Christaller՚s Theory- Geometry and Ordering, Classification of Centers Based on K Value
  • Central Place Theories: Christaller՚s Theory- Applicability, Examples, Validity and Limitations
  • 13
  • Central Place Theories: Losch Theory- Assumption of Losch՚s Theory, Key Idea of Demand Cones, Why Hexagon?
  • Central Place Theories: Christaller՚s Theory- Stage of Profit Maximization, New Market Boundaries
  • 14
  • Central Place Theories: Christaller՚s Theory- Development, Merits of Losch՚s Theory, Critics of Losch՚s Theory
  • Central Place Theories: Christaller՚s vs. Losch՚s Model, Gunnar Olsson՚s Modification Isard՚s Modification
  • 15
  • Central Place Theories: Mercantile Model- Stages of Mercantile Model
  • Sphere of Urban Influence: Urban Region, Peri-Urban Region, & Hinterland
  • 16
  • Sphere of Urban Influence: City Region Relation (Influence of City) , Delimitation Methods
  • Rural-Urban Fringe
  • 17
  • Rural-Urban Fringe: Characteristics of Rural-Urban Fringe, Problems of Rural-Urban Fringe
  • Rural-Urban Fringe: Stages of Transformation of Fringe
  • 18
  • Rural-Urban Fringe: Models of Rural-Urban Fringe- Pryor՚s Model, Ilbery and Bryant Zonal Model
  • Urban Sprawl: Uses of the Term Sprawl, Characteristics of Urban Sprawl, Reasons for Development of Sprawl, Impact of Urban Sprawl
  • 19
  • Megacity, Metacity, & Global City: Megacity, Metacity, Metacity and Megacity as Hubs of Globalization, Mode of Expansion in Metacities & Megacities, Challenges with Metacities & Megacities
  • Megacity, Metacity, & Global City: Global City- World՚s Best-Known Global Cities, Classification of Global Cities, Global Cities in Developing World, Factors Responsible for Rise of Global Cities, Characteristics of Global Cities, Problems
  • 20
  • Edge City, Satellite Towns, & Multipolar City: Edge City- Characteristics of Edge City, Types of Edge Cities, Effect of Edge Cities, Lone Eagle Cities
  • Edge City, Satellite Towns, & Multipolar City: Satellite Towns, Multi-Polar Cities
  • 21
  • Urbanization: Cause of Urbanization
  • Urbanization: Problems or Urbanization, Solutions to Problems of Urbanization
  • 22
  • Slums (Informal Settlements) : Characteristics of Slums, Types of Slums Defined by Census in India
  • Urbanism: Characteristics of Urbanism, Effect of Population Density, Effect of Heterogeneity
  • 23
  • Postmodern Urbanism: Characteristics of Postmodern Cities, Urbanism from Chicago School (Modernist) to Los Angeles School (Postmodernist) , Characteristics of LA as Postmodern City
  • Postmodern Urbanism: Soja՚s Ideas on Postmodern Urbanism, Dear՚s Keno Capitalism
  • 24
  • Postmodern Urbanism: Harvey՚s Flexible Capitalism, Comparing Harvey and Soja
  • Theories of Origin of Towns: Origin of Towns by Gordon Childe- Major Works, Parallels to Theory of Social Evolution by Morgan, Childe՚s Cultural Concept of Archaeology Childe՚s Neolithic and Urban Revolutions, Importance of Childe՚s Work
  • 25
  • Theories of Origin of Towns: Origin of Towns by Henri Pirenne- Important Works, Important Ideas, Formation of Medieval Cities
  • Theories of Origin of Towns: Origin of Towns by Lewis Mumford: Ideas of Geddes & Harvard- Urban Implosion in Cities, Mumford՚s General Principles for City Planning
  • 26
  • Theories of Origin of Towns: Origin of Towns by Lewis Mumford: Ideas of Geddes & Harvard- Mumford Principles for Renovating Cities, Basic Principles for Renovating Neighborhoods
  • Theories of Origin of Towns: Origin of Towns by Lewis Mumford: Ideas of Geddes & Harvard- Regional Planning: Renovating Regions, Concept of Regional City, Regional Authority, National Policy, Difference between Mumford and Geddes
  • 27
  • Urban Planning (Garden City) : Views on Urban Planning, Objectives of Urban Planning, Howard՚s Garden City- Industrialization and Urban Development, Decentralization by Garden Cities, Structure & Composition of Garden & Central City
  • Urban Planning (Garden City) : Views on Urban Planning, Objectives of Urban Planning, Howard՚s Garden City- The Three Magnets of Howard, Application of Garden City, Modifications to Howards Garden City
  • 28
  • Philosophical Approaches to Urban Planning: Utopianism, Utopian Community Proposals, Criticisms and Praise for Utopian Communities
  • Philosophical Approaches to Urban Planning: Modern (Contemporary) Urban Planning- Urban Planning as Design (1900 - 1960) , Urban Planning as Science (1960 - 1970) , Urban Planning as Politics (1970 - 1990)
  • 29
  • Philosophical Approaches to Urban Planning: Marxist Influence on Planning
  • Philosophical Approaches to Urban Planning: Quantitative Revolution in Urban Planning
  • 30
  • Urban Sustainability: World Bank՚s Urban Sustainability Framework, Elements of Sustainable Urban Areas
  • Urban Sustainability: Examples of Sustainable Urban Areas, UN Urban Sustainability Policies, Factors Affecting Urban Sustainability
  • 31
  • Urban Sustainability: Environmental Kuznet՚s Curve, Future of Cities
  • Industrial, Population and Settlement Geography: Major Terms (S to V)
  • 32
  • Urban Growth/Urban Sprawl Analysis
  • Definition, Nature, and Scope of Urban Geography
  • 33
  • Cities in History, First Urban Revolution: Mesopotamian Cities, Egyptian Cities
  • Cities in History, First Urban Revolution: Indus Valley Civilization, Chinese Civilization, Meso American Civilization
  • 34
  • Cities in History, First Urban Revolution: Bases of City Development; Diffusion and Decline, Delhi, Structural Components of Ancient City
  • Cities in History, First Urban Revolution: City in History, Medieval Period and Renaissance
  • 35
  • Urbanization Process in Developed and Less Developed Countries
  • Classification of Cities, Age and Functions
  • 36
  • Urban Hierarchy, Primate City and Rank Size Rule
  • Christaller՚s Central Place Theory
  • 37
  • Christaller՚s Central Place Theory: Criticisms, Applicability and Use, Applicability; August Losch՚s Central Place Theory, Comparison of Christaller and Losch Model
  • Theories of Urban Morphology
  • 38
  • Urban Land Policy: Pre & Post Independence & Legislations
  • Urbanization: Problems, Prospects and Need of Urban Planning
  • 39
  • Rural Urban Fringe: Definition, Delimitation and Structure
  • Urban Poverty
  • 40
  • Urban Crimes in India
  • Slum and Squatter Settlement՚s
  • 41
  • Urban Sprawl
  • Urban Governance
  • 42
  • Regional Imbalances with Reference to Crimes in India
  • Urban Sustainability
  • 43
  • Process of Urbanization in India: Colonial Legacy and the Post-Independence Characteristics
  • Urban Morphology of Jaipur (Case Study)
  • 44
  • Urban Morphology of New Delhi (Case Study)
  • Stages of Urban Growth
  • 45
  • Urbanization and Urbanism
  • Future of Our Cities
  • 46
  • Disposal of Urban Solid Waste
  • Human Ecology of Cities
  • 47
  • Nested Principles of Hierarchy